Cognitive Development of School Age Children

When viewed by nature, humans always want to educate their offspring at every stage of age from fetuses, babies, toddlers, children, adolescents, adults to marine age. Children will begin to enter the stage that they already understand and understand something and can also understand what is good and what is bad.

In this stage, a person is exploring the potential that exists within himself in order to reach maturity when the person grows up. However, emotions in psychology that children have are sometimes still unstable so they must be directed so as not to fall into something that can harm themselves and others around them.

Cognitive development itself can be defined as a change that occurs in a person as a result of the learning process and has been adapted to the conditions of students' cognitive development. To make it clearer, here we will provide an explanation of cognitive development during the school period in full.

Factors Affecting Cognitive Development During School

The pattern of development including the social cognitive development of each child is different, the number and extent of development in each phase that is passed also varies, such as the pattern of physical and spiritual development that is not the same in speed.

Spiritual development can be faster, but not necessarily in terms of spiritual development can also be faster. There are several factors that can affect cognitive development, namely:

Nativism Factor

The flow or theory of nativism was pioneered by Schopenhover and several other figures such as Plato, Lombroso and Descrates. This flow extreme states that all human development is determined from innate factors from birth and affects the emotional development of early childhood.

When conception occurs, namely the process of fertilization of an egg cell from a male cell, then a child will inherit traits from both parents and become a certain potential.

Experts in the theory maintain the correctness of the conception by showing many similarities between parents and their children.

It is true that there are many similarities, but the similarity between parents and children is only based on innateness from birth or because of stimulation or because of external facilities, the innate factor is still questionable. However, the nativisms are still in their position because they think that development is only a form of innate elements. .

Thus, environmental or educational factors according to this school cannot do anything to influence a person's development. In educational science, this flow is called the pedagogic flow of pessimism, namely education cannot affect the development of children towards the desired maturity of education.

Empiricism Factor

The empiricist factor or understanding of the main character is John Locke which in this theory emphasizes the extreme influence of the environment, this theory argues that the environment determines a person and is fully determined by the environment or educational psychology.

From this opinion, it can be understood that this theory prioritizes the influence of the environment or education in cognitive development during the school period. This theory emphasizes on traits that do not play a role at all in the process of human development. According to empiricists, the decisive environment is the Almighty when it comes to determining a person's personal development.

For this reason, in education, this theory is called the pedagogical school of optimism, which means that almighty education will shape or develop one's personality.

Education becomes a means for individuals to carry out the learning process and from that process, humans will also experience changes or developments both physically and spiritually which in education includes cognitive, affective and psychomotor psychology.

However, the problem is whether it is true that the environment or education determines a person's development and this is very ironic because there are people who have a good environment or education so that they are called educated people but do not experience good development and do not reflect attitudes and actions like educated people.

Meanwhile, people who have low education and do not have complete facilities experience good development and have good morals. From this analysis, it can be said that empiricism is a stream that reveals that the environment is the main factor that influences the cognitive and personality development of children in psychology and one's personality.

Convergence Factor

Convergence theory is a theory that bridges or handles the two previous theories or ideologies that are extreme, namely the theory of nativism and also the theory of empiricism. Convergence theory is a theory that takes the middle ground, both innate and environmental factors play an important role in the process of human development.

As the name suggests, convergence means a combination so that this theory implies impartiality to one of the theories that influence the development of developmental psychology during the school period and even combines the influence of both innate and environmental elements which are both the dominant factors in the development of a human being.

From the explanation above about the flow of philosophical doctrines related to cognitive development during the school period, it can be concluded that the factors that influence the high and low quality of student development outcomes basically consist of:

Internal factors: factors that exist in students include certain psychological traits and potential according to self-development.

External factors are factors that come from outside of students including the environment and experience, especially the educational environment.

Phases and Stages of Cognitive Development During the School Period

Pre-School Development

In the implications of developmental psychology in education, the level of student learning success is not only supported or determined from the school period, but is also supported by the previous phase, namely preschool. In fact, when the child is still in the womb that can also affect.

For this reason, parental control must be realized so that children's development can run well. Syamsu Yusuf in his book, psychology of child and adolescent development states that the pre-school age can be divided into two periods, namely the vital period and the aesthetic period.

  • Vital Period: Infancy is called a vital period because the physical and mental conditions of the baby are the solid foundation for further development and growth. At this time, a person will use his biological function to discover many things in the world.
  • Aesthetic period: This period is considered a period of development of beauty and the word aesthetic is considered a period of the main development of children, namely the function of the five senses. Exploitation and learning activities of children also especially use the five senses.

School Time Development

Concrete Operational Level 7 to 12 Years: This phase is for children at elementary school age which is called the low school period. Age 7 to 12 years, the cognitive system that is integrated in the organization begins to develop.

Thinking processes are no longer static and all are used consciously as a mind development tool.

Formal operational level 12 years and over: This period coincides with adolescence which is the transition period for children to adulthood. This period is considered an important period in one's life, especially the formation of one's personality.

The Purpose of Knowing Students' Cognitive Development

In terms of cognitive development factors in social problems, it is imperative for every teacher to know the level of maturity that has been achieved and the level of availability for learning is to determine the level of maturity that has been achieved and also the level of availability for learning is absolute.

A teacher must also maintain the level of maturity and availability of students in every learning process and in every experience they want to learn. This is done so that the business can be successful and ensure that students can get the benefits and elements that are carried out in teaching, guidance and training.

From some of the opinions above, it can be seen that education is an effort to improve the ability of students to a certain level so that teachers are also required to master their abilities as professional teachers in their fields.

The teacher's inability to see the differences in the students in the class they are facing will have a lot of influence on the failure to maintain and develop human resources effectively.

That way, the teacher must also be able to pay attention to the individual differences of children so that the desired goals can be achieved as well as possible and some of these differences include:

  • Time and rhythm of development.
  • Motives, intelligence and emotions.
  • Speed ​​of learning or capturing lessons.
  • Nature and environment.

In learning behavior there is also learning motivation. The learning motivation consists of intrinsic and extrinsic. Teachers are expected to be able to talk to students according to their physical, intellectual and emotional maturity according to their psychology.

See you in the next article, thank you.

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