Moral development in Psychology of Education

Morale is a state of mind, feelings, sayings, and human behavior associated with the values of good and bad. The Moral was the actions/behavior/greeting someone in interacting with humans. If a person does it in accordance with the values prevailing in the community and can be received as well as the fun environment of society, then that person is considered to have good morals.

When the individual begins to realize that he is part of the social environment where he is, at the same time also the individual begins to realize that in the social environment, there are rules, norms/values as a basis or benchmark in the behave. The decision to do something based on the consideration of the norms and values it's called morality.

Before discussing about the theory of moral development in psychology of education we understand first the Theory of moral Development in psychology public according to Kohlberg, there are 3 levels and 6 stages on each level there are 2 stages which are as follows :

1. Level One : Reasoning Prakonvensional.

Reasoning Prakonvensional is : the lowest level in the theory of moral development Kohlberg. At this level, the child showed no internalization of moral values - moral reasoning is controlled by the rewards (reward) and punishments of the external. In other words, the rule is controlled by others (external) and good behavior will be rewarded and bad behavior to get a penalty.

Stage I. The orientation of the punishment and obedience

Namely : the first stage where at this stage of moral reasoning is based on punishment and children obey because adults demanding them to obey.

Stage II. Individualism and purpose

At this stage of moral reasoning is based on rewards (gifts)and the interests of its own. Obedient children when they want to obey and when better to the interests of the best is obedient. What's right is what feels good and what is considered to produce gifts.

2. Level Two : Reasoning Conventional

Reasoning Conventional is a level of internalization of individual medium where someone is keeping the standart-standart (Internal), but they do not obey the standards-standards of others (external)such as parents or the rules-the rules of society. (Read also the relationship of the theory of learning with educational psychology)

Stage III. The norms of Interpersonal

Namely : where a person appreciate truth, awareness and loyalty to others as the foundation of moral consideration. A child expects appreciated by his parents as the best.

Stage IV. The Morality Of The Social System

Namely : where a consideration was based on the understanding atuyran social, legal, justice, and obligation.

3. Level Three : Reasoning Pascakonvensional

Namely : A thought a high level where morality is completely internalized and not based on the standards of others. A person familiar with the actions of the moral alternative, exploring options, and then decide based on a code.

Stage V. Community rights versus the rights of the individual

Namely : values and rules are relative and that the standards can be different from one person to another.

Stage VI. Ethical principles Universal

Ie : someone has developed a moral standard that is based on human rights universal. In terms of when sseorang was faced with the conflict between law and conscience, the person will follow the sound of the heart.

On moral development according to Kohlberg stressed and convinced that in terms of the above happens in a sequence of age-related. In the age before 9 years of a child tend to be on the prakonvensional. In early adolescence tend to be on the conventional and in early adulthood tend to be on the pascakonvensional. Thus the results of the theory of moral development according to kohlberg in general psychology.

When we specialize in looking at the theory of the development of the moral side of education on learners developed in the school environment then there are 3 levels and 6 stages, namely :

4. Level One : Morality Prakonvensional

Namely : when human beings were in a phase of development prayuwana ranging from the ages of 4-10 years not consider morals as the agreement of social traditions.The man in this child is still not consider morals as the agreement of social traditions.

On the first level there are 2 stages namely :

Stage 1 : Orientation of the compliance and penalties.

Is the moral reasoning that is based on punishment and children obey because adults demanding them to obey. In other words, very pay attention to the observance and law. In the concept of moral according to Kohlberg this child determine the ugliness of behavior based on the level of the punishment due to such ugliness. While good behavior will be connected with avoidance of punishment.

Stage 2 : pay Attention to the Gratification of needs.

Meaningful good behavior connected with the gratification of the desires and needs of its own without taking into consideration the needs of others.

5. Level Two : Conventional Morality

That is, when the man ahead and start entering the development phase yuwana at the age of 10-13 years who already considers the moral as the agreement of social traditions.

In Level II, there are 2 stages namely :

Stage 3 : pay Attention to the Image a Good Boy

Meaning : children and teenagers to behave in accordance with the rules and benchmark morals in order to obtain the approval of the adults, not to avoid punishment.

All good and bad deeds are judged based on its purpose, so there is a development of the awareness of the need for rules. In this case there is on the education of the child.

In stage 3 is also called with the Norms Interpernasional is : where a person appreciate truth, awareness, and loyalty to others as the foundation of moral consideration. Children often adopts the moral standards of her parents while expecting appreciated by his parents as a child which good.

Stage 4 : pay Attention to the Laws and Regulations.

Child and teen have a definite attitude to authority and rules. The law must be obeyed by all people.

6. Level Three : Pascakonvensional Morality

That is, when mankind has entered a phase of development yuwana and pascayuwana ranging in age from 13 years old to perceive the moral is more than just a deal social traditions. In the sense here comply with the regulations without the terms and the moral itself is the value that should be used in all situations.

On moral development in level 3 there are 2 stages, namely :

Stage 5. Pay Attention To The Rights Of Individuals.

That means in the world of education it is good is adolescent and adult deciphering the behavior better with personal rights in accordance with the rules and benchmark social. Changes to the law with the rules is acceptable if it is determined to achieve most things better. Violation of the law with the rules can occur due to the reason-reason for certain.

7. Stage 6 : Pay Attention To Ethical Principles

Meaning : Decisions about behavior-pwerilaku social based on moral principles, personal sourced from the universal law that is in harmony with the common good and the interests of others.

Belief in personal morals and values remain attached even though at any time contrary to the law was made to establish social rules. Example : A husband who has no money may be going to steal the drug to save the lives of his wife with the belief that preserving human life is a moral obligation that is higher than the stole itself.

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