17 Approach Guidance On The Psychology Of The Child

Guidance psychology or counselling children is a process that occurs between a child and an adviser or counselor whose job is helping children to get an understanding about what is happening to them. The purpose of the guidance on the psychology of children is to help children recover and also restore her self-confidence, because it was during the counseling sessions of a child driven to be able to declare his feelings. Sometimes, children find it difficult to express himself to the adult, but emotionally they are still dependent on adults who are close to him, and need a little boost to it.

Very important for the child to be able to express thoughts and feelings clearly, because things could not be uttered can make the problem becomes increasingly complicated can even cause new problems at a later date. Guidance on the psychology of the child allows the child find a safe place to talk about things that are difficult for them. In addition, guidance on the psychology of the child can also allow the child to form trusting relationships with adults in the vicinity, especially counselors and parents.

This Type Of Approach Counseling Children

Approach guidance on the psychology of the child is usually carried out for children who are troubled with mental or already leads to mental disorders, which is influenced by internal and external factors the child. Several approaches guidance on the psychology of the child, namely:

1. The Approach Of Psychoanalysis

Psychoanalysis is a theory first emerged in psychology which explores the relationship between personality disorder and the behavior of neurotics. Sigmund Freud's psychology expert who stated psychoanalytic theory to put forward a view about the structure of the human psyche which is mainly composed of natural collective unconscious, the nature of consciousness can be likened to the tip of the iceberg in the middle of the sea. Natural collective unconscious man is most of the iceberg is located at the bottom of the sea. Things become a staple of this theory is how psychoanalysis views the human personality, about the development of the human personality, consciousness and also the collective unconscious, how the defense mechanism of the ego, the role and function of a counselor, as well as techniques – therapy techniques what is used in this theory.

2. The Approach Of Existential Humanistic

In essence, this approach has the belief that individuals have the potential to choose and make decisions for yourself and also the environment. The emphasis in this approach is the responsible freedom. A person is given the freedom to perform any action but should be responsible for risk that can be accepted himself. Approach guidance on the psychology of the child this is not a type of therapy and not a single theory that are arranged in a systematic way.

3. Approach Client Centered

Carl R.Rogers developed client-centered for the application to groups of family and community, and also to individuals. Assumptions about the limitations of the approach of psychoanalysis is the basis of the development of this approach. Psychoanalysis tend to claim that the human is a creature that has a purpose, while the approach client centered states that man is a person who has potential or the ability to solve the problems of its own.

4. Gestalt Approach

Gestalt therapy is a form of therapy created from perpadian existential humanistic and phenomenological, so the focus was on the experience of the client in the present combined with parts of the personality of the client that is broken in the past. Based on the view of Gestalt, to know something then we should see it as a whole, so as not to lose the characteristics that are important like if it is only seen part of it. So it is with human behavior, in order to be healthy then the individual should receive the experience overall without removing other parts. individuals who are not mentally healthy will thus avoid the whole event and dodge.

5. Approach Behavioristic

The approach of this behavior is a combination of several learning theories that have been proposed by several people of different experts, and used since the early 1960s as a reaction against the theory of psychoanalysis, which is not considered to be a problem of the client. An important aspect of this approach is that the observation of the behavior can be defined by means of operational, observed and measured so that it becomes the main choice that is used by the counselor to some specific problems such as eating disorders, abuse drugs, and psychosexual dysfunction.

6. The approach of the crisis

Approach guidance on the psychology of the child is also referred to as approach curative measures guidance to be directed to someone who is having a problem, which aim to overcome these problems. The flow of psychoanalytic much influence the type of approach to this crisis. Know that the importance of psychology in guidance and counseling will also affect the desired results.

7. Approach To Remedial

This approach is the approach of the guidance that the direction is addressed to individuals who are experiencing moments of weakness or deficiency in himself. So, the purpose of the guidance counseling psychology with the approach of treatment is to correct the deficiencies of the individual, and is much influenced by the flow of behavioristic.

8. A Preventive Approach

Guidance counseling that uses this approach is directed to the anticipation of the common problems experienced by individuals and prevent lest until the problem is experienced by the individual. Advisor or counselor will give you some prevention efforts by providing a lot of information or skills needed, for example using the basic techniques of counseling psychology in the interview.

9. Approach Development

The guidance of psychology that uses this approach provides a counseling service for all individuals and not just given to being problematic. Guidance can be done in group, individual, and the classical with the provision of information, discussion activities, group process, and also the distribution of talent and interest. Also know the type – the type of therapy, counseling, psychological theory in counseling and the use of the psychology of communication in counseling.

10. Cognitive Approaches

Approach guidance on the psychology of the child is essentially on the assumption that a person's cognitive abilities is the key that can guide the behavior of a child. It could also be said as an approach with the principles of constructivism which explains that children create knowledge actively, which means the child does not receive knowledge of the environment with the passive.

11. The Approach Of Cognitive Behavioral

Some levels there are in theory the approach of cognitive behavioral and simplest to use the strategy of self-control for example, the ability to talk to instructional, strengthening self-management, cognitive done to cope with anxiety, and guiding the child to be able to do monitoring of himself. The higher rate of this approach is cognitive behavioral therapy or cognitive behavior therapy, which is the approach to problem solving is done in intrapersonal which began to be applied when the child has entered the age of 8-12 years. On the age range that a child usually starts to be able to perform the calculation of the opinions or the views of others.

12. Approach Psikoterapeutik

The emphasis of this approach is the changes that occur in children through the experience of the therapeutic relationship itself, using a process to mutually correcting, the emotional experience of the child, also through the interpretation and the development of self-awareness personal child. Know also about the nature of assessment psychology in counseling and relationship counseling psychology with sociology and anthropology.

13. The Traditional Approach

The counselor in this type of approach guidance on the psychology of the child is more use of the time to the relationship of the individual to the child that is experiencing problems. Consultation with the teacher is often done to improve the learning atmosphere and that atmosphere of learning more smoothly. Not only with the teacher, the supervisor will also hold a special meeting with the parents of students that are experiencing the problem .

14. Approach To Developmental

The center of this approach is to normal children and to create an atmosphere of learning that is effective and healthy. Counsellor is not responsible to test the program and administrative data. The test was held not to benefit individuals but to the whole students are handled by the staff psychologist.

15. Family Approach

The basics of this approach is the work by using the structure of the contract that is performed by each member of the family of a child against the supervisor of psychology. The purpose of these contracts in general is to have a family structure that is independent and functional.

16. The Approach Of Rational Emotive

The potential rational thinking has been owned by humans since birth, but humans also have a tendency to think which way to cheat and irrational, so they tend to feel the results of the poor. This approach emphasizes how to think, assess, conduct analysis, and the ability to decide the re.

17. The Approach Al -

This approach uses the concept of islam by helping individuals to find the nature. Counseling based on the islamic knowledge is used to solve the problem that becomes an obstacle for individuals to experience the development of the nature of good. Find the fitrah is useful to always be close to God and able to develop themselves to solve the problem of his own life and doing counseling with yourself based on the guidance of God through worship and the application of islamic sciences in an individual's life since childhood.

Approach guidance on the psychology of the child has no restrictions on the ability of the development of the child, which affects the child's ability to participate. Therefore, all the therapy depends upon the emergence of the connection with the children to support the process of therapy itself. For children who are still under the age of 7 years, in general, they still feel tend to not like to meet with a therapist in a certain period of time which is quite often. At this stage the child will still often feel confused and may indicate a rejection. To be able to build a relationship with the child, a counselor there are times when it takes more time to create a trust and attachment that will help process the guidance of psychology can take place more smoothly.

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